Direction of the Fatal Shot
and the Jet Effect

by Stewart Galanor

The following evidence indicates the President was shot from the grassy knoll and the Warren Commission covered it up:

1. The Conservation of Momentum tells us that the President was propelled back and to the left by a bullet striking him in the head fired from the right front.

2. The Warren Commission did not disclose that the fatal shot propelled President Kennedy backward to the left rear of the limousine. Instead, the Commission reported that when struck in the head, "The President fell to the left into Mrs. Kennedly's lap." (WR3)

3. The Warren Commission had a scientist Larry Sturdivan at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds shoot ten skulls with the Mannlicher-Carcano. All ten skulls moved away from the rifle and moved in the direction of the bullet. The results of this test were suppressed and were not revealed until fifteen years later during the HSCA investigation. (1HSCA404)

4. The Zapruder film was not shown on television until 12 years after the assassination.

5. The Warren Commission ignored at least seven witnesses who claimed they saw a puff of smoke on the grassy knoll during the assassination.

Dr. Luis Alvarez's Melon Experiment:

3cbulgr Jet Effect
Proponents of the lone assassin theory claim a jet effect, a forward jet stream of blood and brain matter, caused the President to be propelled backward. An experiment by Noble Prize winner Dr. Luis Alvarez shows that a melon shot by a high-velocity frangible bullet produces a retrorecoil that sends the melon flying back towards the shooter.
(See frames from the Alvarez experiment at http://jfklancer.com/galanor/jet_effect.html)

Three characteristics of a jet effect seen in Alvarez's experiment are:

1. Duration of a jet stream: In Dr. Alvarez's experiment the stream of melon matter is seen over six frames.

2. Dimensions of a jet stream: The stream can attain a height 6 times the diameter of the melon and a length 15 times the melon's diameter.

3. Direction of a jet stream: Stream moves predominantly in one direction. If the inner matter of the melon had moved in several directions, their forces would act to canceled each other out. If half of the stream had moved forward and half backward, for example, then the forces ofthe two streams would have cancelled each other out and the melon would not have moved. Now to the evidence.

3cbulgr Evidence
No jet stream is seen in the Zapruder film that even remotely resembles the stream in Alvarez's experiment.

1. Duration: No stream is seen to exist over five frames or even over two.

2. Dimensions: No jet stream is seen attaining anywhere near a height of 6 times the melon's diameter or a length of 15 times the melon's diameter.

3. Direction: Blood and brain matter went in all directions: left front over Mrs. Kennedy and the Connallyís; right rear over motorcycle officer James Chaney; left rear over Bobby Hargis and B. J. Martin. (Hargis was struck so hard that he said, "I thought at first I had been hit.")

4. Hargis and Martin: If we assume a jet stream of brain matter propelled the President to the left rear of the limousine, then that stream must have traveled to the right front of the limousine. (Newton's third law of motion) But Bobby Hargis and B. J. Martin, riding to the left rear, were splattered with blood and brain matter. (Hargis and Martin at the left rear, jet stream at the opposite side of the limousine moving to the right front.) The jet effect does not account for Hargis and Martin being splattered with blood and brain matter.

5. Other Experiments: In separate experiments performed by Dr. Doug DeSalles and physicist Art Snyder, the jet effect did not occur on melons shot with Mannlicher-Carcano bullets.

6. Firing Squad: People executed by a firing squad are placed between the firing squad and the grave, not beyond the grave.

What must have propelled the President backward was the force imparted by a high-velocity bullet shot from the right front.

What follows are responses to other challenges, made over the years, to the relevance and credibility of this evidence indicating a shot from the grassy knoll:

3cbulgr Car Accelerated

An acceleration of the Presidential limousine caused the President to be thrown backward.

The force of acceleration does not play favorites. If Kennedy was propelled backward by the sudden acceleration of the limousine, then Mrs. Kennedy and the Connally's would have reacted the same way. The Zapruder film does not show that the limousine accelerated at the time of the fatal shot.


3cbulgr President went Limp
The President went limp and the limousine continued forward giving the impression that he was propelled backward.

If you throw a ball up in the air in a moving car it will not fly back into your face. You are protected by the law of inertia discovered by Galileo around 1600: Unless an object is acted upon by a force, it will continue to move in a straight line with constant velocity.


3cbulgr Wind Resistance
The wind pushed the President backward.

If a ball is thrown above the windshield of a convertible moving at 50 miles per hour, wind resistance (a force acting on the ball) will force the ball to slow down (decrease its velocity) and will appear to be propelled backward relative to the car. (Relative to the ground the ball continues to move forward.) However, at 11 miles per hour wind resistance is negligible and the ball will not fly backward over the car's trunk. You don't need a convertible to confirm these facts. Just run at 11 mph and throw a ball up in the air, it will keep moving with you. Try it. Practically any one can do this experiment: running at 11 mph is equivalent to running 100 yards in approximately 20 seconds. You can skip 100 yards in 20 seconds.

 "Cover-Up" by Stewart Galanor

GalanorThis book presents the evidence that there was a conspiracy to assassinate President Kennedy and documents the disturbing measures taken by our government and major news media to cover it up. Virtually all of this evidence was gathered by the Dallas Police and agencies of the United States Government and is published in the Warren Commission's 26 Volumes of Testimony and Exhibits or stored in the National Archives.

 arrowblkWarren's Dilemma
 arrowblkA Marksmanship Quiz
 arrowblkThe Jet Effect
 arrowblkDealey Plaza Witnesses Database (History-Matters Website)



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